Starting pig farming is a very much profitable livestock business. Among the various livestock species, piggery is the most potential source for meat production and pigs are more efficient feed converters after the broiler. The business ensures a higher return to the farmers. However, you must have some land area or backyard space for raising pigs or swines. With less effort and investment, one can start a commercial piggery for profits.
In addition, the business is perfect for the women entrepreneurs also. Also, you can gain knowledge and expertise from the Govt. animal husbandry departments. Some of the major pig farming countries are China, Russia, America, Brazil and West Germany.
Why Is Pig/Swine Farming Profitable?
Starting a piggery is a very profitable venture. Here we have compiled some of the major aspects.
- First of all, pigs grow very fast than any other animals. Therefore, it takes less time to get mature pigs for the market.
- They have higher feed conversion efficiency. Therefore, they have a great feed to meat converting ratio.
- Food is not a bog concern for raising pigs. Pigs can eat and consume almost all types of feed including grains, damaged food, forage, fruits, vegetables, garbage, sugarcane etc.
- Starting a piggery business is easy and it requires little capital/investment for building houses and buying equipment.
- Pig meat is a tasty and nutritious food globally. And the demand for the meat is increasing very fast.
- Apart from fresh meat, you can produce and export bacon, ham, lard, pork, sausages etc. to the foreign countries.
- Pig fat also has a huge demand in poultry feed, paints, soap and chemical industries.
- Finally, a pig farming business ensures good ROI (return on investment) ratio and break even.
Pig/Swine Farming Business Plan Checklist
In starting the business, you must craft a business plan for your piggery. Your business plan must consist executive summary, business objective, market analysis, marketing plan, management and operational plan and financial plan. Making a business plan is as simple as writing an idea on paper. It involves writing about the different components in a manner that should persuade a bank or individual to
invest in the business venture.
How To Start Pig/Swine Farming
According to your business plan, you must have two things ready in your hand. One is the space and the another is financial resources. First of all, you must select a land for setting up your pig farm. Additionally, you must have the arrangement to protect the farm from theft. Furthermore, the place must have the availability of some required resources. The list includes a clean water source, electricity, proximity to the markets, availability of the veterinary doctor in the area etc. Finally, check the transportation facility and labour availability at that particular space.
Procure Productive Pig/ Swine Breeds
After setting up the farm, you have to procure pig breeds. Throughout the world, there are several pig breeds available in the market. However, you must select the commercially profitable breeds for your farm.
The most common pig breeds for commercial pig production are the Yorkshire, Landrace, Hampshire, Duroc, and Tibetan, Tamworth and Meishan breeds and their crosses. These breeds produce lean meat combined with efficient feed conversion. Compared to local pig breeds, these commercial breeds are less resistant to diseases and suffer more from hot weather and low quality feeds.
Pigs / Swine Housing
You can construct a pigsty cheaply by using locally available materials. It needs to be constructed according to climatic conditions and according to the pig production system. However, you must ensure good ventilation and ample shade, no overheating, no smells, no draft and no dampness. Additionally, you need to divide the pig building into different pens for each phase of the production cycle. The number and the size of the pens depend on the expected numbers of pigs to be housed in each production phase. Additionally, provide some outdoor space for roaming your pigs.
Pig/ Swine Feeds and Feeding
Pig feeding is an important aspect of commercial pig farming. Overall, animal health and growth ratio depend on the availability of nutritious food. The basic ingredients of pig feed are oat, grains, maize, wheat, rice, sorghum and other millets. However, you must add some protein supplements like oil cakes, fish meal and meat meal. Additionally, you can also use packed feed that comes with proper nutrition balance. A pig needs lots of fresh clean water, approximately 1.5-2 gallons of water daily over 6 months.
Breeding process is simple. Generally, both male and female pigs become suitable for breeding within their 8 months of age. Within this time they reach about 100 to 120 kg. The heat period of female pig lengths for 2 to 3 days. The first day during the heat period of gilts is the best time to breed. And the second day is best for the sow. A sow becomes suitable for breeding again after 2 to 10 days of weaning. The gestation period of pigs is not more than 115 days. A sow can give birth of piglets twice a year and about 8 to 12 piglets each time.
Care and Piggery Management
In this business, you have to take care of the animals in every stage of the life. However, caring is more crucial for the piglets and when the gilt is in gestation stage. Additionally, you have to keep your farm free from all the diseases and health problems. Therefore, proper vaccination de-worming are very important steps.
Sick pigs generally have the following signs:
- It may not eat or not show interest in feed /water
- It may breathe rapidly indication of a fever
- In white skin-colored pigs, the skin may become reddish.
- It may have diarrhea which may sometimes be bloody or blood stained.
- Droopy ears or ears pointing downwards.
- Dull eyes.
- Dull skin and hair.
- Its tail will become limp.
- Separates it self from the rest
In starting a piggery, you must have a marketing plan. According to your farm size, you can plan for selling your mature pigs in good prices. Apart from the local slaughter house, the meat processing centers are the potential consumers. Additionally, you can contact the local restaurants and hotels that have large requirements throughout the year. Additionally, you can consider pig farming for organic meat production also.